Portland cement concrete is a composite material made by combining cement, auxiliary cement materials, aggregate, water and chemical admixtures in the right proportions and curing the resulting mixture over time. Because hardened concrete is a relatively brittle material with low tensile strength, steel rebar and sometimes discontinuous fibers are used in structural concrete to provide tensile strength and increase the toughness of the material. In this chapter, we deal with some of the basic elements: cement, aggregate, water, steel reinforcement, and fiber reinforcement.
About the Book
There was a great need for a detailed handbook on concrete construction engineering and technology that could assist the constructor in making correct technical decisions in various areas of the constructed system. This handbook is aimed at meeting this very need.
This version has been completely updated and includes10 new chapters written by leading experts on various topics dealing with state-of-the-art in several newly developed areas of concrete construction and design engineering. Every chapter deals with their specific subject matter with extensive detail and depth of discussion, a feature that is lacking in any equivalent text.
In addition, each chapter provides a selected reference for users to consult for further research beyond the scope of the handbook. The topics discussed here relate to what design engineers and constructors need to know about concrete, the most versatile material of the 21st century.
These topics can be grouped into 5 categories:
- The latest breakthrough in engineered concrete materials including special concrete applications such as concrete elements, compound design for high performance concrete, normal and high strength concrete, and architectural concrete.
- Recommendations on reinforced concrete structures, a vast array of types of built facilities, long-term effects on behavior and performance, such as creep and shrinkage, construction load effects, formwork and other factors.
- Specialized structures such as pre stressed concrete structures in buildings and transportation; construction and proportionality of seismic zone structures (including the latest provisions of the International Building Code of 2006on the design of seismic zone structures); masonry structures; heavy concrete structures such as roller-compacted concrete, and heavy concrete structures such as off shore platform concrete marine structure.
- Reduction of building deflection, proportionality of concrete structural elements according to the latest ACI318-08 Building code, pre casting of prefabricated, geological and basic engineering, nondestructive evaluation of long-term structural performance, and design recommendations for high performance including structural concrete repair, retrofitting and rehabilitation.
- Professional topics on new materials such as engineering concrete composites, geo polymer concrete, concrete building equipment, joints of concrete structures, design of precast seismic brace systems, detailed design of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP), aesthetics in long bridge construction, etc.