Surveying is the science of determining the location of natural and man-made features on the surface and beneath the earth in three dimensions. These topographic features maybe represented in analog form, such as contour maps, planimetric maps, and nautical charts, or in digital form as three-dimensional mathematical models stored in a computer. This latter format is called a digital ground model (DGM).
In engineering surveying, either or both of the above formats may be used for planning, design, and construction of works, both above and below ground. In later phases, surveying techniques are used to dimension and install engineered construction elements, as well as to monitor deformation movements.
First of all, surveying requires management and decision-making to determine the appropriate methods and measuring equipment needed to complete the work satisfactorily with in the time available, with the specified accuracy. This initial process can only be properly carried out after a very careful and detailed reconnaissance of the area to be surveyed.
About the Book
This book was originally intended to consolidate the first and second volumes of the Engineering Survey, the third and second editions, respectively. However, the technological developments since the date of the last publication (1984) have been extensive enough to warrant a complete rewrite, modernization, and an entirely new book.
Despite the very impressive developments that make engineering surveying one of the most technologically advanced subjects, this book is designed to introduce the reader to elementary procedures and instruments and to provide a clear understanding of the basic concepts of surveying as they apply to the acquisition, processing, and display of spatial data.
Chapters1 and 4 deal with the basic principles of surveying, vertical control, and linear and angular measurement, giving students early access to the relevant instruments. Chapter 5 deals with coordinate systems and reference data necessary for understanding satellite positioning and the various formats for displaying spatial data in L/GIS. Chapter 6 deals with controlled surveying, with special attention to GPS, which is having a revolutionary impact on all aspects of surveying, even in its current imperfect stage. Chapter7 deals with data processing by rudimentary least squares methods and provides an introduction to more advanced texts on the topic.
Chapters8 through10 cover areas of particular interest to engineers and surveyors (curves, earthwork, and general settings in the field) in detail. Each chapter includes carefully selected “real-world examples” to illustrate concepts clearly. Practice exercises with answers are also provided for individual study. The book is specifically aimed at students of surveying, civil, mining, and municipal engineering, and should also be useful for continuing education for professionals in these fields.