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Environment and Ecology- download for free


The environment is everything that surrounds us, and ecology is how they all function. Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. Ecology seeks to understand life processes, adaptation, and biodiversity. Environmental studies, on the other hand, aims to identify the internal and external factors that affect populations.

The term “ecology” was coined by Ernst Haeckel. Ecology is the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment. Its main components include individuals, species, populations, communities, and ecosystems. These components are determined based on the composition and distribution of resources such as sunlight, heat, water, and nutrients.

Nature is not easy to explain, primarily because it incorporates the visible manifestations of geography. Raymond Williams defines nature as “the material world itself, with or without humans.” The history of the term shows that “nature” has often been used to describe the countryside, unspoiled spaces, and even non-human plants and creatures.

It is “non-human. Indeed, the general sense in which nature has been spoken of relates to the environment, of which even humans were an integral component. Thus, in the context of our discussion, nature and environment have almost the same meaning.

In exploring the relationship between human nature and the environment, we consider the natural conditions and forces that influence and sometimes determine the behavior of human populations. At one level, the forces are exercised as broad ongoing procedures; at another level, they take the form of connections between a particular human group and its “immediate environment.” For our purposes, we do not specifically endorse one or the other of these two, but provide a narrative that tends to draw information from both, depending on the situation.

About the Book

Ecology and the Environment Introduction Sources of Study, Indian Landscapes, Nature-Human Interface Environment, Early Societies and Agricultural Societies Nomads, Hunter-Gatherers, Resource Use and Human Society, Agricultural.

Diffusion and Regional Peculiarities-II, Agricultural Diffusion and Regional Peculiarities-I, River Basin Civilizations, Origins of Agriculture Environmental Uses and Indian Philosophy Metal and Mineral Resources, Forest Resources, Water Resources, Energy Resources, Transitional, Conservation through the Ages, Man-Nature Relationships Colonialism, Environment and Contemporary Concerns Resource management: water, Resource management: environmental agenda, Environmental understanding, Alternatives, Environmental resources and patents, Biodiversity, Development and environmental issues.

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