Books, Physics and Science

Essentials of Ecology Fifth Edition- for free


Ecology is the branch of biology that studies the abundance, biomass, and distribution of organisms in relation to their environment. Ecology includes life processes, interactions, adaptations, movement of material and energy through biological communities, successional development of ecosystems, cooperation, competition, and predation within and among species, and patterns of biodiversity and their effects on ecosystem processes.

Ecology has practical applications in conservation biology, wetland management, natural resource management (agro ecology, agriculture, forestry, agro forestry, fishing, mining, tourism), urban planning (urban ecology), community health, economics, basic and applied sciences, and human social interaction (human ecology).

About the Cover Photo

The macaw is are mark ably beautiful parrot that inhabits the subtropical forests of Central and South America, including Costa Rica, southern Panama, and the Amazon basin of Brazil and Peru. Their life span is 30-50 years, and they feed mainly on seeds and fruit. The chirps and screams of this noisy bird can be heard far and wide throughout the forest.

The macaw is endangered because of its popularity as a pet due to its beautiful plumage and affectionate treatment of humans. International agreements make it illegal to take them out of the wild without special permission. However, many of these rare parrots are illegally captured and smuggled from their native habitat to the United States and Canada, where they are sold on the black market for thousands of dollars each.

About the Book

Each chapter begins with a list of key questions and concepts that indicate how the chapter is organized and what students will learn. New terms are bolded as they appear and are defined, and all such terms are summarized in a glossary at the end of the book and highlighted in review questions at the end of each chapter.

Sixty-six Thinking About exercises reinforce learning by asking students to think critically about the implications of various environmental problems and their solutions immediately after they are discussed in the text. Many of the figure captions include questions to help students think about and evaluate the content.

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