Surveying is the process of measuring horizontal distances between various objects on the earth’s surface to determine their relative positions and to create maps at the appropriate scale. Measurements are taken on a horizontal plane.

One of the most important tasks in surveying is the measurement of the horizontal distance between two points. In the case of two points at different elevations, the distance is the horizontal length between the vertical lines between the two points.

**About the Book**

This book is written in plain, lucid language and first presents a thorough introduction to the subject. The various measurement errors and their types and properties are explained, along with the measurement of horizontal and electronic distances.

Level, angle, azimuth, and compass measurements are discussed in detail in this book. It also describes the functions and uses of various measuring instruments such as theodolites, tachymeters, and stadia rods. In addition, the book details various surveying disciplines, such as planimetric, topographic, construction, and subsurface surveying. Finally, the book includes a chapter on computer applications in surveying.

In writing this book on surveying, the author have tried therefore to explain comprehensively the principles of surveying instruments and derivation of mathematical formulae. Separate chapters have been written on Underground Surveys’ and Computer Programs in Surveying’ to incorporate the recent developments in this field. Primarily aimed to be an introductory text for the first course in surveying for civil, architecture and mining engineering students, this book, now in its second edition, is also suitable for various professional courses in surveying. Written in a simple and lucid language, this book at the outset, presents thorough introduction to the subject.

Different measurement errors with their types and nature are described along with measurement of horizontal distances and electronic distances measurements. This text covers in detail the topics in levelling, angles and directions and compass survey. The functions and uses of different instruments, tacheometers and stadia rods are also covered in the text. Finally, the book includes a chapter on computer applications in surveying. This book is very useful to civil engineering students who are completely unaware of surveying.

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