Surveying is defined as the science of determining the three-dimension allocation of natural and man-made features on or below the surface of the earth. These features may be expressed in analog formats such as contour maps, planimetric maps, and nautical charts, or in digital formats such as digital ground models (DGMs). In engineering surveying, either or both of the above formats may be used for planning, design, and construction of works, both above and belowground.
In later phases, surveying techniques are also used to dimension and install engineered construction elements, as well as to monitored formation movements. First, surveying requires management and decision-making to determine the appropriate methods and equipment needed to satisfactorily complete the work.
About the Book
This book is a step-by-step, easy-to-understand guide to the various principles, methods, and equipment involved in land surveying. Modern methods and techniques are emphasized throughout the text. After presenting basic concepts and definitions, errors and their propagation in surveying are explained. Survey measurements are then discussed in detail.
These include horizontal distance, vertical distance, slope, elevation, angle, and direction. Next, the focus will be on measurements using stadiometry, followed by a discussion of contour surveying and the use of contour lines in civil engineering projects. Next, traverses will be described, followed by a detailed discussion of map making by planimetric tabling. The use of tangent clinometers in planimetric mapmaking is also focused on. The last chapter covers various types of curves and the various field problems involved in setting curves. Appropriate diagrams, examples, and exercises are included throughout the book.
This book will serve as an excellent text for civil engineering degree candidates and graduates; AMIE candidates and practitioners will also find this book very useful. About the Author Dr. A.M. Chandra is currently working as a Professor of Civil Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (formerly Roorkee University).