Surveying or land surveying is the art, profession, art or science of determining the location of two or three-dimensional points on the earth and the distances or angles between them. These points are usually on the surface of the earth and are often used to establish locations such as maps or boundaries for property rights, design locations of structural members for construction or locations of underground ground surfaces, or for other purposes required by government or civil law, such as real estate sales.
Surveyors work with elements of geodesy, geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics, engineering, metrology, programming languages, and law. They use equipment such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, reflectors, 3D scanners, LiDAR sensors, radios, inclinometers, handheld tablets, optical levels, digital levels, underground survey equipment, drones, GIS, survey software
Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history. Surveying is used in the planning and implementation of most construction. It is also used for transportation, communication, mapping, and defining the legal boundaries of land ownership. It is also an important tool for research in many other scientific fields.
About the Book
This book is an attempt to deal with the basic mathematical aspects of “engineering surveying”, i.e., surveying as applied to construction and mining engineering projects, and to give guidance on practical methods for solving typical problems posed practically and theoretically by the various testing agencies.
The general approach is a theoretical analysis of each topic followed by practical examples and finally a selection of exercises for personal study. Because the material covered in this book is rudimentary and widely accepted, few new ideas are discussed. It is hoped that surveying mathematics, which often troubles the novice, will be presented in the clearest and most understand able form possible. The main part of the work of engineering surveyors, civil engineers, mining engineers, and all those engaged in the construction industry is limited to plane surveying, and this book is likewise limited to plane surveying.
Basic trigonometry is included to provide basic mathematical tools for surveyors. It is generally found that there is a lack of ability to apply numerical values to trigonometry problems, especially in solving triangles, and it is hoped that the problem chapters will show that more than the sine and cosine formulas are required. Many aspects of surveying, e.g., errors in surveying, distance measurement of curves, etc., require the use of small angles, and applications of radians have been proposed.