Surveying is the art and science of taking actual measurements on or near the surface of the earth. Field measurements in surveying include horizontal distances, inclination distances, vertical distances, horizontal angles, and vertical angles. In addition to distance and angle measurements, surveyors can use satellite positioning and remote sensing techniques to measure the position given by the north latitude, east longitude, and altitude of the survey station. In addition to in-situ measurements, the surveyor can derive relevant distances and orientations through geometric and trigonometric analysis.
Once the angle, distance, or positioning technique has determined the location of the survey station, the surveyor attaches an appropriate identifier or attribute (in hand written or electronic field notes) to the survey station that describes the nature of the survey station. Chapter8 explains that the survey station attribute data can be expanded from a simple descriptive label to include a variety of related information that can be tagged specifically to that survey station.
Engineering and construction surveys overlong distances, such as highways and railroads, are treated as planimetric surveys, correcting for the curvature of the earth at regular intervals (e.g., atone-mile intervals or town boundaries). Engineering surveying is defined as activities involved in the planning and execution of surveys for the location, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of civil and other engineering projects.
About the Book
In this revised edition, the order of the chapters has been partially changed. To reflect the complexity of electronic distance measurement, the order in which survey topics are presented has been changed as follows:
The chapter on level surveying has been moved to Chapter 2, allowing the simpler equipment to be presented before the more complex total stations.
Revisions to the text and the addition of new material focused on chapters describing topics where technology and applications are still in their infancy. Revisions to the text and additions of new material include the following: Chapter5-Total Stations-The introduction has been rewritten and topics on total station and GPS combined instruments and ground lidar imaging have been revised or added. Chapter 7-Introduction topics were revised and topics on wide-area augmentation, CORS, OPUS, and real-time GPS networks were expanded.
The end-of-chapter questions have also been expanded and updated. The websites listed in some chapters and Appendix B were updated and validated.