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FUNDAMENTALS OF GIS by Dr. Ranju J. Pandey- for free


GIS (Geographic Information Systems) are the most powerful computerized tools for information collection, storage, analysis, manipulation, modeling, and retrieval, and are as essential as remote sensing for success full and use/resource use planning, management, and optimization. Indeed, remote sensing-based data/information and its analysis and modeling by GIS tools and techniques complement each other in all types of development planning.

GIS is an inter disciplinary subject encompassing a variety of techniques and concepts; to understand the capabilities of Geographic Information Systems, it is important to study cartography, mapping, spatial analysis, statistical analysis, various types of databases, database management, and programming The purpose, concept, definition, need, scope, and importance of GIS, history, components of GIS, and types of Geographic Information Systems are covered in the following units.


People around the world want to know geographic, social, economic, political, and environmental information in digital form. Exploring geographically referenced digital information requires electronic tools designed to capture, present, and interact with information linking locations and measurements.

One such tool is called a geographic information system, and GIS technology is powering solutions for telecommunications, utilities, agriculture, defense, petroleum, healthcare, transportation, mining, environmental management, oil, water and waste water, and many other industries as well as local, state, and federal government agencies.

Geographic Information Systems are one of the world’s most exciting and powerful geomatics decision-making tools; GIS uses computer technology to integrate, manipulate, and display a variety of information to depict the geographic, environmental, and socioeconomic characteristics of an area.

GIS overlays and integrates graphic and textual information from separate databases on a computerized topographic map. The end result is a customized, reliable tool that supports decision-making and problem solving and can providenear-instantaneous answers to complex questions (Geomatics Canada Web Site, 2000).

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