Tall building, also called sky scrapers or sky scrapers, are an integral part of the modern city, defined by Craighead (2009:1) as: a “multistory structure in which most occupants rely on elevators (lifts) to reach their destination. Characteristics of such buildings include that their height can have a significant impact on evacuation and that they extend to heights that exceed the maximum reachable height of available fire suppression equipment.
While there is no general rule for the height at which a building becomes a sky scraper, it is generally considered to be a tall building if it exceeds approximately 40 stories.
Relatively slender buildings with fewer stories and buildings in some European cities may also be considered sky scrapers. With the development of the sky scraper over the past two decades, the term “super tall building “or” ultra tall building ” describes buildings over 300meters high. More recently, buildings over 600meters high are now referred to as “mega buildings.
About the Book
The approach described in this book is a three-step process, beginning with the preliminary or conceptual design phase, followed by the detailed design phase, and then the final design phase.
Through which all aspects are checked, construction drawings are completed, and the design is ready for implementation. In general, the level of computational accuracy and the amount of available geotechnical data increases as each phase progresses, often starting with a relatively sparse amount of data and increasing in detail and quantity as the design process progresses.
This second phase typically consists of detailed drilling, geophysics, institute sting, and laboratory testing. The final phase incorporates filed elemental testing, usually on piles and possibly shallow foundations, to allow for optimization and eventual “tuning” of the design.
The objectives of this book are to:
- To clarify the issues that need to be considered in the design, not only with respect to structural loads, but also with respect to loads resulting from the soil in which the foundation is located.
- To summarize some of the available information on geotechnical design techniques for each of the three phases of design. These range from empirical approaches that can be used as an initial approximation of design requirements, to simplified but sound methods that can be employed for detailed design, to detailed numerical analyses suitable for the final stages of the design process.
- Methods for evaluating relevant foundation design parameters are presented.
- Describes procedures for pile testing and monitoring the performance of foundations during and after construction.
- Present details of a limited number of case histories in which the various analysis and design techniques described in this document have been applied. These case histories are limited to those I have been involved with, but there are other publications that discuss more case histories, for example, Hemsley (2000) and Katzenbach et al. (2016).
While this book focuses on the geotechnical design of foundations, there is also a brief section on other aspects of tall building design that geotechnical designers should be aware of. These include the various structural forms of tall building, the options available for foundation systems, the various sources of loading on foundations, and the very basic aspects of structural design of foundation systems.